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Breed Registry (Also referred to as Stud Book and Register)
A breed registry, also known as a stud book or register, is an official list of horses within a specific breed whose parents are known. Horses are usually registered by their breeders when they are still young. The terms "stud book" and "register" are also used to refer to lists of male horses "standing at stud", that is, those animals actively breeding, as opposed to every known specimen of that breed. Such registries usually issue certificates for each recorded horse, called a Pedigree, Pedigreed animal documentation, or most commonly, an horse's ‘papers’ or sometimes ‘passport’. Registration papers may consist of a simple certificate or a listing of ancestors in the horse's background, sometimes with a chart showing the lineage.
Types Of Equine Registries (Stud Books or Register): There are basically three types of registries, Open, Closed and recently added Appendix.
Closed Registry - A closed stud book is a stud book or breed registry that does not accept any outside blood. The registered horses and all subsequent offspring trace back to the foundation stock. This ensures that the horse is a purebred member of the breed. In horses, an example of a closed stud book is that of the Thoroughbred, with a stud book tracing to 1791. A closed stud book allows the breed to stay pure to its type, but limits the ability of that breed to be improved. This may put a breed at a disadvantage, especially in performance disciplines, where a horse is worth more if it is successful in competition even if it is not pure. It also limits the gene pool, which may make certain undesirable characteristics become accentuated in the breed, such as a poor conformational fault or a disease. It also, depending on original numbers and management practices, can lead to an ever increasing level of inbreeding. Some closed stud books, particularly for certain European breeds such as the Finnhorse and the Trakehner, may also have a studbook selection criteria where animals must meet a conformation standard, a performance standard, or both.
Open Registry - In an open stud book, horses may be registered even if their parents or earlier ancestors were not previously registered with that particular entity. Usually an open stud book has strict studbook selection criteria that require a horse to meet a certain standard of conformation, performance or both. This allows breeders to modify breeds by including individuals who conform to the breed standard but are of outside origin. More controversial open stud books are those where there are few, if any qualifications for animals other than a single trait, such as a "color breed," particularly when the color is not a true-breeding characteristic. However, some breeds have a standard color or color preference that is one criterion among others used to register animals.
Appendix Registry - Appendix registries are open or partly-open and may permit horses which have some but not all qualifications for full registration to nonetheless be entered in a preliminary recording system often called an "appendix" registry. The most notable is that of the American Quarter Horse Association, which allows part-Thoroughbred/part-Quarter Horse foals to be recorded and shown, with full registration allowed after the horse achieves a set performance or merit standard akin to that of a merit registry. Other appendix registries are seen in certain color breeds of horses, such as the Appaloosa, American Paint Horse, and American Cream Draft Horse, where foals with the proper pedigree for registration but do not meet the color standard for the breed, yet may still carry the necessary genetics in a minimally-expressed form, may be registered and bred to fully-registered animals, with ensuing offspring eligible for registration if they meet the breed standard.
Warmblood Open Breed Registry
Warmblood Registry - Breeding Policies: Warmbloods have come into their own since the end of World War II, when mechanization made agricultural horses obsolete and recreational riding became more widespread in the western world. Because of the Warmbloods 'open' studbook policies Warmbloods differ from "true breeds" such as Arabians, Percherons and Morgans (Which all have a closed stud book and require two purebred parents of that breed) and Thoroughbreds, who along with having a closed studbook and the requirement that both parents to be pureblood; they also require “live cover”, where the stud must physically breed the mare (Artificial fertilization is not allowed).
With an “open registry” most warmblood registries accept breeding stock from other similar sport horse populations to continuously improve their own horses, and do not consider their own horses to be a discrete "breed". The Trakehner is an exception, though some other breeds have from time to time been used within the Trakehner breeding population, this horse is considered a true breed. The Hanoverian, Holsteiner, and Selle Francais studbooks are also considered slightly less open than others. Most Warmblood registries recognize breeding stock from any other registry that is a member of the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses, which is affiliated with the IOC-recognized International Federation for Equestrian Sports.
Warmblood Registry - Studbook Selection/Test/Inspection/Keuring: A defining characteristic of a Warmblood registry is studbook selection, which is also referred to as an, though even some purebred breeds in Europe use this practice. Studbook selection is the use of critical external evaluation; critiquing the conformation, movement and jumping ability of potential breeding stock, the purpose; to cull out unsuitable breeding horses and direct the breed towards a particular goal. Today, studbook selection usually entails a performance proof in addition to external evaluation, particularly for stallions. A typical studbook selection consists of what is referred to as an inspection, a test or the Dutch Keuring (Inspection) which consists of an initial inspection of the candidate horses. These horses are primarily other sport horse breeds as well as Thoroughbred horses. During the initial stringent inspection all but the best candidate horses are eliminated. These selected horses then attend a final exam where the candidate horse must be shown in hand (Lead on a lead rope) and at liberty (Off the lead rope running within an enclosed area) to demonstrate their athletic ability and will also be required to free jump a three-jump series. Oldenburg Stallions must also attend a stringent 100 Day Stallion Test, in order to achieve a Lifetime Breeding License.
Warmblood Registry - Breeding Aim: The most critical characteristic of a Warmblood registry is that its breeding goal or "breeding aim" is to breed sport horses. Standards of conformation and movement are not designed to perpetuate a particular ancestral type, but rather to meet a particular need. This concept is illustrated by the history of the Oldenburg horse through the past 150 years: in the late 1800s, the standard called for a heavy but elegant, high-stepping carriage horse, in the early 1900s for a heavier, stronger, economical farm and artillery horse, and since 1950 for a modern, lighter, more athletic sport horse. Each breed registry has a slightly different focus, but most breed primarily for show jumping and dressage, though many include combined driving and eventing as well. The breeding aim is reflective of the needs of the market. In eras and regions which called for cavalry mounts, Warmbloods were bred to fit that need; when and where horses for light to moderate agricultural work were needed, Warmbloods have filled those roles, too. The purposeful evolution of the standard breeding aim is another characteristic of the Warmbloods.
Heavy Warmbloods: The ancestral types, referred to as the heavy warmbloods are preserved through special organizations. The heavy warmbloods have found their niche as family horses and in combined driving.